Here Are 4 Tips That Should Help You Perfect Your Pronunciation Of ‘microbiome’:
- Break ‘microbiome’ down into sounds:say it out loud and exaggerate the sounds until you can consistently produce them.
- Record yourself saying ‘microbiome’ in full sentences, then watch yourself and listen. You’ll be able to mark your mistakes quite easily.
- Look up tutorials on Youtube on how to pronounce ‘microbiome’.
- Focus on one accent: mixing multiple accents can get really confusing especially for beginners, so pick one accent and stick to it.
To Further Improve Your English Pronunciation We Suggest You Do The Following:
- work on word/sentence reduction: in some countries, reducing words and sentences can be seen as informalbut in the United States, it’s completely normal and part of everyday conversation . Click gonna and wanna for more examples.
- work on your intonation: stress, rhythm and intonation patterns are not easy to master in English but they are crucial to make others understandwhat you say. It’s what expresses the mood, attitude and emotion.Check out Youtube, it has countless videos related to this subject.
- Subscribe to 1 or more English teaching channels on Youtube:it’s free and it covers the core topics of the English language. Check outRachel’s English andEnglish With Jenniferto name just a few.
The Role Of Probiotics
If microbiota are so vital to our health, how can we ensure that we have enough or the right types? You may be familiar with probiotics or perhaps already using them. These are either foods that naturally contain microbiota, or supplement pills that contain live active bacteriaadvertised to promote digestive health. Probiotic supplement sales exceeded $35 billion in 2015, with a projected increase to $65 billion by 2024. Whether you believe the health claims or think they are yet another snake oil scam, they make up a multi-billion dollar industry that is evolving in tandem with quickly emerging research.
Because probiotics fall under the category of supplements and not food, they are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration in the U.S. This means that unless the supplement company voluntarily discloses information on quality, such as carrying the USP seal that provides standards for quality and purity, a probiotic pill may not contain the amounts listed on the label or even guarantee that the bacteria are alive and active at the time of use.
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What Is The Microbiome
Picture a bustling city on a weekday morning, the sidewalks flooded with people rushing to get to work or to appointments. Now imagine this at a microscopic level and you have an idea of what the microbiome looks like inside our bodies, consisting of trillions of microorganisms of thousands of different species. These include not only bacteria but fungi, parasites, and viruses. In a healthy person, these bugs coexist peacefully, with the largest numbers found in the small and large intestines but also throughout the body. The microbiome is even labeled a supporting organ because it plays so many key roles in promoting the smooth daily operations of the human body.
Each person has an entirely unique network of microbiota that is originally determined by ones DNA. A person is first exposed to microorganisms as an infant, during delivery in the birth canal and through the mothers breast milk. Exactly which microorganisms the infant is exposed to depends solely on the species found in the mother. Later on, environmental exposures and diet can change ones microbiome to be either beneficial to health or place one at greater risk for disease.
Our Findings Highlight How Many Resistant Genes Are In The Microbiome And Could Potentially Be Mobilised To Be Opportunistic Pathogens
However, many of the genes thought to be fixed in certain bacterial environments can start spreading by overuse of antibiotics, which can put pressure on the resistant genes locked up inside a single bacterial cell, causing them to mobilise.
“Our findings highlight how many resistant genes are in the microbiome and could potentially be mobilised to be opportunistic pathogens. They should be seen as a warning that there is a large reservoir of these genes we dont want to start mobilising,” van Schaik says.
The brain and gut have a strong, two-way communication system referred to as the gutbrain axis. Each are essential to the other studies have found that brain development is abnormal in the absence of the gut microbiome. However, a recent review stated that research hasnt yet figured out which exact gut bacterium are crucial for brain development.
Further investigation is uncovering how interlinked the gut is to the brain, however, including our mood and mental health, says Katerina Johnson, a researcher of the microbiome-gut-brain axis at the University of Oxford.
There is a recent trend toward taking probiotic supplements because we are only now realising the extent to which the gut microbiome affects us
“Research shows that if we take gut bacteria from depressed humans and colonise the guts of mice with it, the mice show changes in their behaviour and physiology that are characteristic of depression,” she says.
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So What Is Microbiota
The gut microbiota definition refers to the microorganisms found in a specific environment by type. This includes bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, and archaea, and the diversity of the microbiota will vary from person to person.
Different bacteria have specific names determined by a branch of science called taxonomy, where biology experts are tasked with allocating a name and a rank in the tree of life.
For example, the probiotic L. rhamnosus is actually a species of Lactobacillus, a genus that belongs to the Firmicutes phylum, which is a member of the Kingdom of Bacteria .
Different bacteria live on different parts of the body, prefer different foods, and perform different functions. There is an oral microbiota of the mouth, a microbiota of the skin that has many subcategories , and a gut microbiota – among many others of course.
FACT Microbiota plural is often microbiota, but if referencing different types or a collection, the term microbiotas may be used.
Pyrosequencing Of Oral Samples
Blasting of 942,788 quality-filtered sequences from 37 adolescents at 98.5% threshold identified 401 HOT in the HOMD. Of these, 295 taxa were represented by 20 sequences. Using the latter cutoff, the mean number of species/phylotypes by subject was 170 , of phyla was 9 , and of genera was 66 . The dominant phyla accounted for 95.2% of all sequences, Proteobacteria for 4.2%, and the remaining phyla or divisions for <1% of the sequences.
The majority of all sequences were classified into 9 genera , each of which comprised >1% of all sequences. The remaining taxa were in 57 genera that each represented <1% of all sequences. The group median prevalences for phyla and genera are presented in Appendix Table 1. The top 15 ranked species by prevalence were Streptococcus mitis, Corynebacterium matruchotii, Prevotella nigrescens, S. mitis bv2, Alloprevotella tannerae, Leptotrichia wadei, Streptococcus cristatus, Leptotrichia hofstadii, Actinomyces gerencseriae, Prevotella oris, Streptococcus sp. HOT071, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, Prevotella sp. HOT317, Actinomyces sp. HOT448, and Streptococcus sanguinis .
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How Does Microbiome Analysis Work
Explore your gut bacteria and their functions with microbiome test. It can give you real insight into the unique ecosystem of your gut.
The Atlas Microbiome Test uses advanced DNA sequencing technology to screen the genes of your gut microbes and determine what bacteria are inside you and what they’re doing. Just order the test online, collect a tiny stool sample, and send it back. Here’s what you can learn from it:
- See how well your gut microbes protect you from disease
- Find out how your diet is affecting your gut microbes
- Discover your gut microbes ability to make vitamins
- Get personalised food recommendations based on your results
Can Diet Affect Ones Microbiota
In addition to family genes, environment, and medication use, diet plays a large role in determining what kinds of microbiota live in the colon. All of these factors create a unique microbiome from person to person. A high-fiber diet in particular affects the type and amount of microbiota in the intestines. Dietary fiber can only be broken down and fermented by enzymes from microbiota living in the colon. Short chain fatty acids are released as a result of fermentation. This lowers the pH of the colon, which in turn determines the type of microbiota present that would survive in this acidic environment. The lower pH limits the growth of some harmful bacteria like Clostridium difficile. Growing research on SCFA explores their wide-ranging effects on health, including stimulating immune cell activity and maintaining normal blood levels of glucose and cholesterol.
Be aware that a high intake of prebiotic foods, especially if introduced suddenly, can increase gas production and bloating. Individuals with gastrointestinal sensitivities such as irritable bowel syndrome should introduce these foods in small amounts to first assess tolerance. With continued use, tolerance may improve with fewer side effects.
If one does not have food sensitivities, it is important to gradually implement a high-fiber diet because a low-fiber diet may not only reduce the amount of beneficial microbiota, but increase the growth of pathogenic bacteria that thrive in a lower acidic environment.
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Sample Collection Dna Isolation Pcr And Counts Of Mutans Streptococci
Biofilm samples were collected from all supragingival tooth surfaces using sterilized toothpicks. Pooled plaque samples were stored in TE buffer at 80 °C. Tooth biofilm DNA was extracted using the Gen Elute Bacterial Genomic DNA kit with the addition of lysozyme and mutanolysin as described . The quality and quantity of DNA were evaluated using a Nanodrop 1000 spectrophotometer to meet the standard set by the sequencing facility, namely, an OD 260/280 ratio of approximately 1.8 and an OD 260/230 ratio of approximately 2.0. PCR and qPCR of S. mutans and S. sobrinus were performed using the KAPA2G Robust HotStart PCR Ready Mix kit .
Microbiome Profile By Caries Group
The species richness differed 2.7 times between the samples and was higher in Romanian adolescents with a high prevalence of caries than either the caries-active or caries-free Swedish groups . Univariate analyses confirmed that a significantly higher number of the 295 HOT were in the Romanian high caries group than in the caries-active and caries-free Swedish groups .
Rarefaction curves. Species richness, the number of types of sequences in a sample, in individual Romanian adolescents with a high prevalence of caries , Swedish adolescents with caries activity , and caries-free Swedish adolescents . Mean number of types of sequences in the 3 groups.
PCoA modeling of all HOT separated Romanian adolescents from most of the Swedish adolescents . Group separation was more distinct in the PCA score plot using the 295 HOT represented by 20 sequences, S. sobrinus and S. mutans detected by PCR/qPCR, and intake of sugar snacks .
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The Gut Microbiome May Affect Your Weight
There are thousands of different types of bacteria in your intestines, most of which benefit your health.
However, having too many unhealthy microbes can lead to disease.
An imbalance of healthy and unhealthy microbes is sometimes called gut dysbiosis, and it may contribute to weight gain .
Several well-known studies have shown that the gut microbiome differed completely between identical twins, one of whom was obese and one of whom was healthy. This demonstrated that differences in the microbiome were not genetic .
Interestingly, in one study, when the microbiome from the obese twin was transferred to mice, they gained more weight those that had received the microbiome of the lean twin, despite both groups eating the same diet .
These studies show that microbiome dysbiosis may play a role in weight gain.
Fortunately, probiotics are good for a healthy microbiome and can help with weight loss. Nevertheless, studies suggest that the effects of probiotics on weight loss are probably quite small, with people losing less than 2.2 pounds .
Gut dysbiosis may lead to weight gain, but probiotics can potentially restore gut health and help reduce weight.
It May Help Control Blood Sugar And Lower The Risk Of Diabetes
The gut microbiome also may help control blood sugar, which could affect the risk of type 1 and 2 diabetes.
One recent study examined 33 infants who had a genetically high risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
It found that the diversity of the microbiome dropped suddenly before the onset of type 1 diabetes. It also found that levels of a number of unhealthy bacterial species increased just before the onset of type 1 diabetes .
Another study found that even when people ate the exact same foods, their blood sugar could vary greatly. This may be due to the types of bacteria in their guts .
The gut microbiome plays a role in controlling blood sugar and may also affect the onset of type 1 diabetes in children.
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A Modern Debate For Modern Times
Most people would consider something as trivial as the pronunciation of kombucha to be such a non-issue that the thought of even suggesting it would trigger debate an oddity in itself. Yet, the internet provides a platform for fervent disputes, and alas, here we are.
In order to solve the debate on pronunciation, its first important to at least establish a baseline on the syllables in the word itself. Yet this also remains a contentious issue: some say two, others three.
At the very least, we can agree that the word itself is generally split into two segments: kom-bucha. Agreed? Well, we need to start somewhere!
Overselling The Microbiome Award: Vib Press Release Saying Intestinal Flora Determines Health Of Obese People
Some really cool new papers are out on the human microbiome today. But alas that is not what I am here to talk about. I am here, once again, to complain about overselling the microbome. There is a headline from a press release from one of the institutes involved in one of the new studies that really irks me: Intestinal flora determines health of obese people. As far as I can tell from reading the paper under discussion in this PR, nothing showed that the flora determined the health of obese people. Yes, the flora had really interesting correlations with health status. But determines health implies that the flora were the causal component of the health of obese people. And as far as I can tell this was not shown. What was shown was that the microbial communities and some metrics of those communities like richness can help predict risk of individuals for various health related ailments.
Now, mind you, the person discussed in this PR Jeroen Raes is completely brilliant and one of my favorite people in science in many ways. And also it is important to point out that the paper does not make these claims. The paper says things like
Our classifications based on variation in the gut microbiome identify subsets of individuals in the general white adult population who may be at increased risk of progressing to adiposity-associated co-morbidities
Even the title:
Richness of human gut microbiome correlates with metabolic markers
|From the VIB Home Page|
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How Microbiota Benefit The Body
Microbiota stimulate the immune system, break down potentially toxic food compounds, and synthesize certain vitamins and amino acids, including the B vitamins and vitamin K. For example, the key enzymes needed to form vitamin B12 are only found in bacteria, not in plants and animals.
Sugars like table sugar and lactose are quickly absorbed in the upper part of the small intestine, but more complex carbohydrates like starches and fibers are not as easily digested and may travel lower to the large intestine. There, the microbiota help to break down these compounds with their digestive enzymes. The fermentation of indigestible fibers causes the production of short chain fatty acids that can be used by the body as a nutrient source but also play an important role in muscle function and possibly the prevention of chronic diseases, including certain cancers and bowel disorders. Clinical studies have shown that SCFA may be useful in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, Crohns disease, and antibiotic-associated diarrhea.
The microbiota of a healthy person will also provide protection from pathogenic organisms that enter the body such as through drinking or eating contaminated water or food.
Numerous Studies Have Shown That C
“This is very important for infants to develop their immune systems. Recent work has suggested that disturbances in early life gut microbiome have negative consequences for host health,” she says.
“Numerous studies have shown that C-sections affect health long-term, and there’s strong evidence to suggest they lead to a higher risk of developing allergies, and a less robust ecosystem, meaning you’re more susceptible to changes and disturbances, such as antibiotics.
However, there is no robust evidence on what this difference means specifically for the immune system.”
There are also differences in the microbiomes of breast-fed and formula-fed babies. Bifidobacterium, a group of bacteria associated with health, are often found in the guts of babies who are breast-fed.
“We know that Bifidobacterium are able to digest components found in breast milk. These components are not normally found in formula milk, which is why formula-fed babies have less of them,” Hall says.
One problem with supplements is that every person’s gut microbiome is subtly different
Scientists are getting closer to understanding how the gut can also be used to treat disease. One of the newest treatments in the field is faecal microbiota transplants, where a healthy person’s microbiota is put into a patient’s gut.
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Why The Gut Microbiome Is Crucial For Your Health
Your body is full of trillions of bacteria, viruses and fungi. They are collectively known as the microbiome.
While some bacteria are associated with disease, others are actually extremely important for your immune system, heart, weight and many other aspects of health.
This article serves as a guide to the gut microbiome and explains why its so important for your health.
What Is A Biome
Animals, plants, and even oceans and soils have their own individual biomes made up of specific inhabitants.
Our bodies are not just ours, they are home to a vast collection of microorganisms. Ask most people to define microbiome, and a handful might say that it refers to a bacterial ecosystem that lives in a specific place. They may even mention the gut.
For scientists, a biome is an ecosystem made up of flora and fauna. They use the word micro to indicate that this ecosystem is invisible to the human eye. It is made up of mostly bacteria, but also viruses, archaea, and fungi, which all play a role in maintaining the environment’s stability.
The human microbiome encompasses trillions of microbes that can be separated into subsections dependent on their location. When we say gut microbiome, we mean the microorganisms that reside in your colon.
But the microbiome isnt just a feature of human beings – animals, plants, soils, and oceans have their own ones too. And no matter how you look at it, the gut microbiome plays a major role in human health.
Home to trillions of microbial cells, it is an essential part of our biology that supports many physiological functions, helps maintain the integrity of our gut lining, and protects us from disease and illness.
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Future Areas Of Research
The microbiome is a living dynamic environment where the relative abundance of species may fluctuate daily, weekly, and monthly depending on diet, medication, exercise, and a host of other environmental exposures. However, scientists are still in the early stages of understanding the microbiomes broad role in health and the extent of problems that can occur from an interruption in the normal interactions between the microbiome and its host.
Some current research topics:
- How the microbiome and their metabolites influence human health and disease.
- What factors influence the framework and balance of ones microbiome.
- The development of probiotics as a functional food and addressing regulatory issues.
Specific areas of interest:
- Factors that affect the microbiome of pregnant women, infants, and the pediatric population.
- Manipulating microbes to resist disease and respond better to treatments.
- Differences in the microbiome between healthy individuals and those with chronic disease such as diabetes, gastrointestinal diseases, obesity, cancers, and cardiovascular disease.
- Developing diagnostic biomarkers from the microbiome to identify diseases before they develop.
- Alteration of the microbiome through transplantation of microbes between individuals .
Here Are 4 Tips That Should Help You Perfect Your Pronunciation Of ‘michelob’:
- Break ‘michelob’ down into sounds:++-say it out loud and exaggerate the sounds until you can consistently produce them.
- Record yourself saying ‘michelob’ in full sentences, then watch yourself and listen. You’ll be able to mark your mistakes quite easily.
- Look up tutorials on Youtube on how to pronounce ‘michelob’.
- Focus on one accent: mixing multiple accents can get really confusing especially for beginners, so pick one accent and stick to it.
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Pyrosequencing And Sequence Analyses
Sequencing of DNA from the biofilm samples was performed using the Lib-L kit on an FLX+ Titanium platform at GATC Biotech AG . The V1 to V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified using the forward primer 27F with an adaptor sequence and sample-specific barcode oligonucleotide tags and the reverse primer 805R. Sequences obtained were processed using QIIME , and HOMD human oral taxa at a 98.5% similarity level were determined .
The Gut Microbiome May Benefit Heart Health
Interestingly, the gut microbiome may even affect heart health .
A recent study in 1,500 people found that the gut microbiome played an important role in promoting good HDL cholesterol and triglycerides .
Certain unhealthy species in the gut microbiome may also contribute to heart disease by producing trimethylamine N-oxide .
TMAO is a chemical that contributes to blocked arteries, which may lead to heart attacks or stroke.
Certain bacteria within the microbiome convert choline and L-carnitine, both of which are nutrients found in red meat and other animal-based food sources, to TMAO, potentially increasing risk factors for heart disease .
However, other bacteria within the gut microbiome, particularly Lactobacilli, may help reduce cholesterol when taken as a probiotic .
Certain bacteria within the gut microbiome can produce chemicals that may block arteries and lead to heart disease. However, probiotics may help lower cholesterol and the risk of heart disease.
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In This Episode We Discuss:
- Who is Dr. Will Bulsiewicz, what does he do, and how did he get here?
- What aspects of our health really affect our well-being, beyond genetics?
- How important is the microbiome to our health?
- How genetics are expressed differently based on our lifestyle
- How much control do we have over our microbiome, and what can we do?
- What changes could we make to our nutrition to improve our gut health?
- How you implement a diet is more important that what it is
- Is over-sanitizing our food a good practice?
- What is Dr. Bulsiewicz’s take on probiotics?
- Where can you learn more about Dr. Will Bulsiewicz?
Some Of My Best Friends Are Germs
- May 15, 2013
I can tell you the exact date that I began to think of myself in the first-person plural as a superorganism, that is, rather than a plain old individual human being. It happened on March 7. Thats when I opened my e-mail to find a huge, processor-choking file of charts and raw data from a laboratory located at the BioFrontiers Institute at the University of Colorado, Boulder. As part of a new citizen-science initiative called the American Gut project, the lab sequenced my microbiome that is, the genes not of me, exactly, but of the several hundred microbial species with whom I share this body. These bacteria, which number around 100 trillion, are living right now on the surface of my skin, on my tongue and deep in the coils of my intestines, where the largest contingent of them will be found, a pound or two of microbes together forming a vast, largely uncharted interior wilderness that scientists are just beginning to map.
I clicked open a file called Taxa Tables, and a colorful bar chart popped up on my screen. Each bar represented a sample taken from my skin, mouth and feces. For purposes of comparison, these were juxtaposed with bars representing the microbiomes of about 100 average Americans previously sequenced.
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