Wednesday, July 10, 2024

What Of The Following Statements Is True Of A Microbiome

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Which Of The Following Statements Is False Group Of Answer Choices The Gut Microbiome Is Impaired By Intense Short

How your Gut controls your Brain | The Microbiome influences Mood and Memory

Which of the following statements is FALSE? . Group of answer choices The gut microbiome is impaired by intense short-term stress but not by chronic psychological stress. The gut microbiome supports the hum.

Im studying and need help with a Biology question to help me learn.

Which of the following statements is FALSE? .

The gut microbiome is impaired by intense short-term stress but not by chronic psychological stress.

The gut microbiome supports the human immune system.

The gut microbiome requires support from regular moderate physical activity.

Imbalance in the gut microbiome can cause chronic inflammation.

The gut microbiome requires support from a varied diet.

Meddiet Can Promote Healthier Aging

A recent study published by BMJ Journals Gut indicates that enjoying a Mediterranean diet can promote healthier aging.

The study was conducted over a 12 month period across a large cohort of more than 600 individuals aged 6579 years, within 5 different European countries . The researchers evaluated the differences in the gut microbiota in each individual before and after the year of consuming a MedDiet.

The results indicate that consuming a MedDiet improved cognitive function and the gut microbiome of those in the study.

The positive effects of these alterations showed that there was an increase in fatty acid production and a decrease in secondary bile acids, p-cresols, ethanol, and carbon dioxide. These changes were associated with lower frailty and improved cognitive function and an overall decrease in inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein and interleukin-17.

This study shows that changing to a MedDiet can have a positive impact on people as they age.


Want to learn more about the Mediterranean diet? Click here.

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Future Areas Of Research

The microbiome is a living dynamic environment where the relative abundance of species may fluctuate daily, weekly, and monthly depending on diet, medication, exercise, and a host of other environmental exposures. However, scientists are still in the early stages of understanding the microbiomes broad role in health and the extent of problems that can occur from an interruption in the normal interactions between the microbiome and its host.

Some current research topics:

  • How the microbiome and their metabolites influence human health and disease.
  • What factors influence the framework and balance of ones microbiome.
  • The development of probiotics as a functional food and addressing regulatory issues.

Specific areas of interest:

  • Factors that affect the microbiome of pregnant women, infants, and the pediatric population.
  • Manipulating microbes to resist disease and respond better to treatments.
  • Differences in the microbiome between healthy individuals and those with chronic disease such as diabetes, gastrointestinal diseases, obesity, cancers, and cardiovascular disease.
  • Developing diagnostic biomarkers from the microbiome to identify diseases before they develop.
  • Alteration of the microbiome through transplantation of microbes between individuals .

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Your Gut Microbiome Deserves A Good Nights Sleep

A good nights sleep is not only beneficial for the human host, our bacterial hitchhikers also love getting extra zzzzzs.

Studies suggest a link between gut microbiota, sleep, and cognitive flexibility in older adults a link between insomnia and depression between chronic sleep disruption and insulin resistance and a positive connection between lactobacillus casei and deep sleep.

These Sleepline infographics summarize this relationship in an easy to understand and share format.

Read Sleeplines summary of these studies here.

View our FREE On-Demand Webinar Getting to the Gut, Meet Your Microbiome

This one-hour complimentary journey will expand your view of how trillions of bacterial hitchhikers profoundly influence our health. We will discuss how foods, the environment and our medical practices have impacted our gut bacteria over time and strategies we can take to protect these old friends. Join us!

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Potential Role Of Dysbiosis In Gastrointestinal Diseases

Solved: Which Of The Following Statements Is NOT TRUE Rega ...

Several highly prevalent diseases have been associated with imbalances in microbiota composition and function, including IBD, obesity, diabetes, allergy, IBS, GC, colorectal polyps and CRC, liver cirrhosis, NAFLD, neurodevelopmental disorders, cardiovascular disorders, cholesterol gallstones, diarrhea, malnutrition, and kidney disease . However, it has yet to be studied if this change in microbial composition is a cause or a consequence of the disease itself. We will now give emphasis to microbiome-gastrointestinal disease associations recently described in the literature.

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How Is The Human Microbiome Project Being Conducted

The HMP is a coordinated effort being conducted at 80 institutes across the United States. Baylor College of Medicine is the only site where all aspects of the HMP, from human sampling to sequencing and data analysis, were performed. Initial efforts focused on technological issues involving the development of resources and procedures to accomplish the task of generating and analyzing vast amounts of data.

Because a goal of the HMP is to define a healthy human microbiome, a major challenge was the identification and selection of 300 ânormalâ subjects. The healthy adult volunteers that researchers recruited for this project were not obese, not on medications, and did not have any chronic health problems or diseases even minor gum disease was enough to exclude a subject from the study. The clinicians collected multiple samples from different areas of the skin, mouth, nose, stool, and vagina of the volunteers and sampled subjects up to three separate times over the course of a little over one year in an effort to access stability and diversity of the microbiome over time.

Half of the subjects who participated in the HMP were recruited by Baylor. A large part of this success was due to Dr. Keitel’s expertise in volunteer recruitment as a result of her work in directing the Vaccine Research Center at Baylor. She served as a principal investigator of the sampling aspect of the Baylor HMP.

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

NAFLD encloses a spectrum of liver diseases from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma, in which liver fat deposition occurs. NAFLD requires the exclusion of a daily alcohol consumption of more than 30 g for men and 20 g for women. In recent years, NAFLD has emerged as one of the most common causes of liver disease worldwide .

The effectiveness of lifestyle changes, as modifications in diet and physical activity, have a great impact on metabolic control and liver histology , making clear the importance of environmental factors in this disease. However, there is a large variability in NAFLD progression that is not explained by genetics or environment.

Liver is the first organ to be exposed, through portal tract, to gut-origin metabolites, such as dietary nutrients and microbiota-related products. Due to this straight interaction between gut and liver, microbiota dysbiosis has been outlined as a major factor in the pathology of all stages of NAFLD . Dysbiosis can lead to increased intestinal permeability, promoting translocation of commensal metabolites through the vascular system into the liver , which directly contributes to hepatic lipid metabolism disruption and inflammatory processes in the liver .

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Therapeutic Modulation Of Gastrointestinal Microbiota

Fig. 1.

Overview of modulator therapies that target dysbiotic conditions and their current relevance. NAFLD, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease CDI, Clostridium difficile infection IBD, inflammatory bowel disease IBS, irritable bowel syndrome UC, ulcerative colitis CD, Crohns disease FMT, fecal microbiota transplant.

Join The Wonderment As We Explore The Role Of Our Microbiome

Abundance or relative abundance – that is the question!

This Webinar is filled with Bevs energy, knowledge, and passion for diabetes that she replicates in all her teachings. She puts a demand on herself to be a mentor to all. Her information is well organized, full of current/relevant research, and helps CDCES view into the future as a changing world impacts diabetics. I find her to be the most exciting and engaging educator and OUTSTANDING teacher!! recent participant

New Webinar topics:

  • Discuss the latest research on our microbiome
  • Describe the link between COVID and gut bacterial health
  • Discuss the role of the skin microbiome in health and body weight
  • Describe the importance of diet during pregnancy to promote the babys healthy microbiome.
  • State the relationship between gut health and diabetes risk
  • Describe 3 strategies to get our microbiome back to better health.

This one-hour complimentary journey will expand your view of how the trillions of bacterial hitchhikers profoundly influence our health. We will discuss how foods, the environment, and our medical practices have impacted our gut bacteria over time and strategies we can take to protect these old friends.

Sign up for Diabetes Blog Bytes we post one daily Blog Byte from Monday to Friday. And of course, Tuesday is our Question of the Week. Its Informative and FREE! Sign up below!

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How Can We Increase A Muciniphila

Metformin is associated with increased levels of A. muciniphila. Animal studies consistently show that metformin significantly promotes A. muciniphila abundance.

Eating certain whole foods and avoiding high fat diets.

Studies show that polyphenols derived from grapes and cranberries increase the abundance of Akkermansia. This results in enhanced intestinal barrier function and incretin secretion from intestinal endocrine cells. Together, these actions suppress obesity, insulin resistance, and intestinal inflammation.

In another study, apple-derived macromolecular procyanidins induced an increase in the abundance of intestinal Akkermansia leading to anti-inflammatory effects in a mouse model with metabolic syndrome.

Research has also shown that avoiding a high-fat diet and heavy alcohol intake can increase A. muciniphila abundance.

Probiotics studies are being done to see if A. mucinphila supplements can also increase intestinal levels. There is so much more info coming out everyday about this bug superstar.

View our FREE On-Demand Webinar Getting to the Gut, Meet Your Microbiome

This one-hour complimentary journey will expand your view of how trillions of bacterial hitchhikers profoundly influence our health. We will discuss how foods, the environment and our medical practices have impacted our gut bacteria over time and strategies we can take to protect these old friends. Join us!

Correlations With Host Phenotype

Figure 5: Microbial community membership and function correlates with host phenotype and sample metadata.

ad, The pathway and clade abundances most significantly associated using a multivariate linear model with subject race or ethnicity , vaginal posterior fornix pH , subject age and BMI . Scatter plots of samples are shown with lines indicating best simple linear fit. Race/ethnicity and vaginal pH are particularly strong associations age and BMI are more representative of typically modest phenotypic associations , suggesting that variation in the healthy microbiota may correspond to other host or environmental factors.

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Importance Of The Human Microbiome Project

The human microbiome makes up about one to two percent of the body mass of an adult. It has been likened to a body organ. But, unlike say a heart or a liver, the importance and function of the microbiome is just starting to be appreciated.

It has long been known that bacteria are involved in certain body processes, such as digesting food and producing vitamins, but the microbiome appears have a much broader impact on our health than was previously realized. The community of microbes in an individual may influence the susceptibility to certain infectious diseases, as well as contribute to disorders such as obesity and diabetes. It may also contribute to the development of some chronic illnesses of the gastrointestinal system such as Crohn’s disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Some collections of microbes can determine how one responds to a particular drug treatment. The microbiome of the mother may even affect the health of her children.

A more complete understanding of the diversity of microbes that make up the human microbiome could lead to novel therapies. For example, it may be possible to treat a bacterial infection caused by a “bad” bacterial species by promoting the growth of the “good” bacteria. Microbiome transplants are already being used to combat certain illnesses, such as Clostridium difficile infections, to establish more healthful bacterial populations.

Join Us In January Online Courses

Biology Archive

Coach Bev will be updating all of Level 1 Diabetes Fundamental Courses via live webinars throughout this month. See full course schedule here.

Cant make it live? No problem:

All our courses are recorded and are available for viewing in your online university account. Dont miss these crucial 2020 updates:

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A Special Shout Out To Akkermansia Muciniphila

More intestinal mucus is better. Especially if it is microbially diverse and full of A. muciniphila. A healthy thick gut mucus lining environment boasts an abundance of A. muciniphila and is associated with decreased glucose and less inflammation. A thinner mucus layer is associated with increased diabetes risk and inflammation.

A. muciniphila, discovered only a decade ago, has the important and complex job of maintaining the mucus layer that lines the intestines. Hence the name, mucinphila or mucus loving. An intestinal mucus layer full of A. mucinphila seems to be important. This bacterium makes up just 3 to 5 percent of all gut microbes, yet its the main microbe floating in the mucus layer and its busy.

Question Two: What Are The Broad Molecular Mechanisms By Which The Human Microbiome May Be Involved In The Aetiopathogenesis Of Cancer

Table 2 Whatare the broad molecular mechanisms by which the human microbiome may be involved in the aetiopathogeneis of cancer?

Statement: the mechanisms by which the microbiome may initiate and/or drive carcinogenesis can be classified into: Evidentiary support
Strong evidence from human studies Agree

At the molecular level, the mechanisms by which microorganisms can contribute to carcinogenesis are multiple and varied and have been extensively discussed elsewhere. The mechanisms may broadly be categorised into genomic integration, genotoxicity, inflammation, immunity and metabolism. Many of these mechanisms are likely not evolved to cause pathologies in the host but rather do so as collateral damage, as the organism optimises its chances of survival. Ultimately, all mechanisms converge on a final common pathway of prolonged host cell survival, enhanced replicative capacity and dedifferentiation.

Genomic integration





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Microbiome Metabolism And Function

As the first study to include both marker gene and metagenomic data across body habitats from a large human population, we additionally assessed the ecology of microbial metabolic and functional pathways in these communities. We reconstructed the relative abundances of pathways in community metagenomes, which were much more constant and evenly diverse than were organismal abundances , confirming this as an ecological property of the entire human microbiome. We were likewise able to determine for the first time that taxonomic and functional alpha diversity across microbial communities significantly correlate , the latter within a more proscribed range of community configurations .

Warning Common Household Chemicals Associated With Excess Weight And Osteoporosis

RHR: Reader Question – Is High Fat Healthy For the Gut Microbiota?

Experts are meeting with congress to encourage investigation of the relationship of human exposure to perfluoroakyl and polyperfluoroakyl on weight and osteoporosis.

Early studies have shown a link between greater PFAS exposure and increased risk for endocrine outcomes like BMI > 30, but more research is needed specifically to examine factors like exposure timing, Abby Fleisch, MD, MPH

Read More here Endocrine Today Article

These commonly found chemical PFA substances are endocrine disrupting chemicals and may be the driving factor responsible for a variety of adverse health outcomes.

PFAS are a large and expanding group of man-made compounds that are widely used to make everyday products more resistant to stains, grease and water, according to the NIH.

PFAS can be found in nonstick cookware, stain-resistant carpeting, to-go containers, cleaning products, drinking water, microwave popcorn, and even fire extinguisher foam. Toxic Free Future advises avoiding common packaged foods with grease repellent coatings , avoid stain resistance treatments on furniture, and check personal care products for teflon, fluoro or perfluoro.

Toxic Free Future has created a fantastic educational flyer on PFAS, its sources, and easy alternatives:

For more tips on minimizing exposure to PFAS and what can be done about PFAS, you can visit Toxic Free Futures website here. We also discuss PFAs in our recent FREE Webinar, Getting to the Gut. Click below to get started.

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Carriage Of Specific Microbes

Inter-individual variation in the microbiome proved to be specific, functionally relevant and personalized. One example of this is illustrated by the Streptococcus spp. of the oral cavity. The genus dominates the oropharynx, with different species abundant within each sampled body habitat and, even at the species level, marked differences in carriage within each habitat among individuals . As the ratio of pan- to core-genomes is high in many human-associated microbes, this variation in abundance could be due to selective pressures acting on pathways differentially present among Streptococcus species or strains . Indeed, we observed extensive strain-level genomic variation within microbial species in this population, enriched for host-specific structural variants around genomic islands . Even with respect to the single Streptococcus mitis strain B6, gene losses associated with these events were common, for example differentially eliminating S. mitis carriage of the V-type ATPase or choline binding proteins cbp6 and cbp12 among subsets of the host population . These losses were easily observable by comparison to reference isolate genomes, and these initial findings indicate that microbial strain- and host-specific gene gains and polymorphisms may be similarly ubiquitous.

Figure 4: Microbial carriage varies between subjects down to the species and strain level.

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