What Is The Oral Microbiota
Your mouth is home to hundreds of different microorganisms, be it bacteria, viruses, or fungi, that make up an important ecosystem in your mouth.
The oral microbiota is a complex microbial ecosystem which helps to maintain a stable mouth environment. Within the mouth, there are also microenvironments, like on the teeth, tongue, hard and soft palates, where bacteria also colonise.
Oralgut Microbiome Axis In Human Gi Diseases And Cancers
The oral pathogen can interfere with intestinal barrier function and invade the gut mucosa, which induces the intestinal dysbiosis and chronic inflammation, consequently leading to IBD pathogenesis. Notably, IBD patients as well as colitis-induced mice displayed alterations in their salivary microbiota compositions, which were associated with inflammatory responses, indicating that the oralgut microbial interactions could be bidirectional .
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancer types and the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide . IBD is the most well-established risk factor for development and progression of CRC . Thus, IBD and CRC share etiological factors in pathogenesis, including distinct changes in the gut microbiome .
Oral dysbiosis potentially aggravates chronic liver diseases via shifts in the gut microbiome.
In a gnotobiotic mouse model, certain types of intestinal bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis, can significantly increase liver tumorigenesis, indicating the direct involvement of the gut microbiota in HCC pathogenesis .
Oral Health Linked To Gut Health
The term IBD references two conditions, ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease. Both of these conditions are hallmarked by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The exact cause of IBD is unknown, but the condition affects roughly three million adults in the U.S.
As part of the study, researchers noted a connection between an overgrowth of foreign bacterial species in the stomachs of patients with IBD. This type of bacteria is normally found in the mouth. This discovery prompted researchers to further explore whether oral disease can impact the severity of certain types of gastrointestinal diseases.
While the precise mechanism that enables an oral infection to contribute to the development of stomach ailments remains unclear, the findings of the study clearly showed that gum inflammation causes inflammation in the stomach to worsen.
Researchers discovered two pathways where oral bacteria worsened stomach inflammation. In the first pathway, severe gum disease created an imbalance in the mouths normally healthy microbiome that led to an increase of bacteria that causes gum inflammation. This same type of bacteria can then make its way to the stomach.
Gum disease leads to the increased presence of harmful oral bacteria in the mouth. When harmful bacteria build up, it can then be ingested and travel to the stomach. Once there, the bacteria can cause inflammation to develop in the stomach, reports the research team.
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What Is The Oral Microbiome How To Balance It To Improve Overall Health
The mouth is considered to be a major gateway to the rest of the body. Oftentimes, whats happening in the oral microbiome is representative of whats happening elsewhere in the body.
Its believed there are between 300 and 700 different microbial species living in the average humans mouth. According to an article published in the Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, the oral microbiome is the second largest microbial community in humans second to the gut, which is often simply called the microbiome.
Microbes populating the mouth play an important role in functions such as digestion, metabolism, blood pressure regulation and maintenance of the structure of the teeth.
How can you take care of the community of organisms living in your mouth? As youll learn below, practicing the right type of oral hygiene, eating a healthy diet and consuming probiotics are some of the best strategies.
Importance Beyond The Oral Cavity
Oral bacteria can provide an important defence against invading bodies. This occurs when the microorganisms work in synergy. However, if there is an imbalance, this can have several adverse effects on the health of the host. This microbial imbalance is referred to as dysbiosis. When it occurs, it can be a contributing factor to several diseases. This includes inflammatory bowel disease, Alzheimers, diabetes, pancreatic cancer, and cirrhosis of the liver.
The human microbiome interacts very closely with our immune system, and as a consequence the immune system may be affected by dysbiosis, contributing to conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and HIV infection. Dysbiosis of the oral microbiome has also been related to the cardiovascular system and the development of atherosclerosis. These findings show the significant influence that the oral microbiome has on whole-body health.
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Get Good Quality Sleep
When it comes to sleep, the number of hours is as important as quality. Getting 8 hours of restless sleep wont do any good.;
In a study conducted on animals, researchers found out that disturbed sleep negatively impacts gut health. On the one hand, good quality sleep has been linked to improvements in human gut health, cognition, and mood.
Gum Disease Linked To Poor Gut Health
At our Seaside dental clinic, Dr. Santos knows that a patients teeth can provide a lot of information about their health, diet, age, and identity. The health of a patients teeth can even give Dr. Santos clues about their overall health, including clues to health issues that dont even originate in the mouth. Some serious issues like cardiovascular disease, respiratory infections, and diabetes have all been linked to poor oral health in studies. Now, researchers from the University of Michigan Medical and Dental School have discovered that inflammatory bowel disease that includes ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease, may also become exacerbated in patients with poor oral health.
The results of the study were published in the journal Cell.
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Gut Bacteria For Heart Health
Interestingly, your gut bacteria also help regulate your metabolism, and by that, we mean all the essential chemical processes that make life possible, like extracting energy. However, problems can arise when the gut microbiome is imbalanced, something doctors call dysbiosis.
When this ecosystem no longer lives in harmony, it loses the ability to help regulate your metabolism correctly. This situation has been identified in many patients suffering from heart disease, diabetes type 2 and obesity.
These three metabolic diseases share a lot in common because if you have one of them, you are at higher risk of getting another. All of them are associated with inflammation, hypertension and overweight. They can also damage the lining of the vessels that pump blood between the heart and your bodys tissues, causing hypertension.
Its now known that a balanced and diverse microbiome is essential for heart health because of its role in modulating metabolic processes. In fact, plenty of studies link a happy and healthy microbiota to important features for ensuring your heart is working optimally:
- lean body weight
- stable blood sugar levels
- combating chronic inflammation
Probiotic bacteria are instrumental in keeping your microbiome balanced and, by doing so, they help make sure that your whole body is functioning properly too.
Good Gut Health For Overall Health And Wellness
Your overall health and wellness depend on various systems working together efficiently. Each of our organs is dependent on one another – if one fails, a chain of reactions happens.
As difficult as it is to understand, intestinal bacteria do not simply affect the intestinal tract alone.;
More than bloating, gas, and chronic fatigue, patients are more prone to developing a slew of other diseases. These include irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases , type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and many more.;
A healthy gut contributes to a healthy you. So pay attention to what you eat – and what you dont eat. A few healthy changes will go a long way.
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Dont Skip Your Cleanings
In an ideal world, if a patient were eating 100% Paleo or keto, s/he could probably go 12-18 months between cleanings. However, very few people have the desire or ability to stick to a strict diet that closely.
Thats why 6-month teeth cleanings are important to keeping your oral microbiome healthy. The plaque buildup your hygienist removes can otherwise contribute to the dysbiotic growth of pathogenic oral bacteria.
Quitting Can Restore The Bacteria Balance
Importantly, the investigators found that the oral microbiome of smokers differed significantly from that of people who had never smoked and those who had quit smoking. The team also found that the oral microbiome of smokers bounces back after they quit smoking, with all former smokers showing the same microbial balance as nonsmokers. The actual time it takes to start restoring friendly bacteria after quitting smoking is currently unknown.
More than 150 bacterial species showed significantly increased growth in the mouths of smokers, while another 70 showed sharp decreases in growth. For instance, smokers had relatively fewer species of Proteobacteria , than nonsmokers , with Proteobacteria shown to be involved in the breakdown of toxic chemicals introduced by smoking. By contrast, smokers had 10 percent more species of Streptococcus than nonsmokers, with Streptococcus known to promote tooth decay.
Back to Curatolas recommendations against typical toothpastes, mouth rinses etc. In order to refrain from harsh detergents or even bacteria-killing health store pastes, he only recommends two brands Auromere and Weleda toothpaste. Otherwise, bentonite clay can serve as a toothpowder or you can make a sea salt rinse.
Photo via Visual Hunt
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Significance Of This Study
What is already known on this subject
Proton pump inhibitors use is associated with increased risk of enteric infections, in particular with a 65% increase in incidence of Clostridium difficile infection.
PPI is one of the most commonly used drugs.
Changes in the gut microbiome can resist or promote the colonisation of enteric infections.
What are the new findings
PPI use is associated with decreased bacterial richness and profound changes in the gut microbiome: 20% of the identified bacteria in this study showed significant deviation.
Oral bacteria and potential pathogenic bacteria are increased in the gut microbiota of PPI users.
On the population level we see more microbial alterations in the gut associated with PPI use than with antibiotics or other drug use.
How might it impact on clinical practice in the foreseeable future?
Given the widespread use of PPI, the morbidity and mortality associated with enteric infections, and the increasing number of studies investigating the microbiome, healthcare practitioners and researchers should take into consideration the influence of PPI on the gut microbiome.
How Intestinal Bacteria Cause Inflammation
Your digestive system must monitor both your gut microbiome and incoming food.
When your gut microbes become imbalanced, it disrupts your immune system. Digestive diseases, allergies, and metabolic syndromes are now thought to originate here.
Your digestive system sends immune cells all over the body. ;Inflammation in the digestive system can be detected by markers in the blood.
Normally, your gut bacteria prevent too much inflammation in the immune system. But when the gut microbes and the immune system falter, digestive problems can occur.
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How Your Gut Health Impacts Your Oral Health
Every dentist will tell you that there is a close link between our gut microbiome and oral health, with trillions of good bacteria living throughout your digestive system.; Your microbiome influences your digestion, immune system, metabolism, and hormones. Research shows it can even play a role in your daily moods and emotions. Your dentist will be most concerned with an imbalance in your microbiome that can affect your oral health.
Ecological Shifts In The Oral Microbiome
The key to oral health is an ecologically balanced and diverse microbiome that practices commensalism within itself and mutualism with its host. In a healthy oral cavity, an ecological balance exists between the host and the numerous indigenous microorganisms71. This relationship allows them to flourish, maintain biodiversity within the oral cavity and keep their host healthy. The interactions can also repress functions of the member species to modulate population growth, biofilm structure, community changes, and spatial organization8,72Figure 2. The shifts in relationships, proportion and virulence properties of microbes seem to affect one another, and therefore, it is not sure which ecological shift occurred first. It is also unclear what exactly triggers the initial ecological shift and, in turn, catalyzes the entire cycle73.
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What Is Saliva For
- preventing bacterial overgrowth
- starting the process of starch digestion
Oral bacteria can hitch a ride in your saliva and spread throughout the body, including to the gut. Some are destroyed by stomach acid, others are acid-resistant, like Porphyromonas gingivalis which is also linked with an imbalance in the gut microbiome, also known as dysbiosis.
Generally, when you swallow, there will be lots of bacteria, but most wont colonise the gut. However, in some serious diseases, increased amounts of oral bacteria have been reported in the gut, suggesting there is a link between the two.
In particular, medication for chronic gastric reflux, called proton pump inhibitors , may also facilitate the passage of microbes from your mouth to your gut because they reduce the production of stomach acid an important microbial barrier.
FACTStudies show that oral bacteria can colonise the gut, activating inflammation.
The Oral Microbiota Of The Homa Mouse Model
The surveys of oral samples revealed the engraftment of the human oral microbiota: all bacterial phyla, classes, orders, 27 of 28 bacterial families, and 84.78% of genus-level taxa were detected among the recipient mice. All seven genus-level taxa missed by the humanised mice exhibited a low abundance in the donor sample . The oral microbiota of the donor was dominated by eleven genus-level taxa, with a high relative abundance , of which five, Veillonella, Fusobacterium, Streptococcus, Porphyromonas and Haemophilus, maintained a high abundance among the recipient mice. The others were depleted to a low abundance among the recipient mice .
To further identify the advantages of the HOMA mouse model, we compared the oral microbiota of HOMA mice with SPF mice. PCA revealed that the donor oral microbiota clustered closely with the HOMA mouse but were distinct from SPF mouse microbiota, especially in PC1 . The oral microbiota of HOMA mice differed from that of SPF mice in taxonomic structure. Dominant genus-level taxa present in the donor saliva sample were significantly more abundant among HOMA mice than SPF mice, including Veillonella, Fusobacterium, Streptococcus and Haemophilus .
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Importance Of Interkingdom Interactions Among Oral Microbiome Towards Caries Development A Review
Kalpana Balakrishnan1, 4, Divya Sivanesan1, Gaanappriya Mohan4, Sachin S Gunthe2,3, Rama S Verma1*
1Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai
2Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai
3Laboratory of Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai
4Department of Biotechnology, K. S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Namakkal Tamil Nadu, India
The human microbiome plays a crucial role in health and disease conditions. These microbiomes constitute a structured, coordinated microbial network throughout the human body. The oral cavity harbors one of the extensively diverse bacteria in the human system. Although many studies emphasize bacteriome and its interaction with the host system, very little attention is given to candidate phyla radiation , fungal components, and its interkingdom interaction in the oral microecology even with advanced techniques. The interkingdom interactions among caries causing microbes trigger the pathogenesis of bacterial diseases and cause ecological shifts and affect the host system. Studying the complex relations among the diverse oral microbiome and its host, especially CPR phyla and fungi, would give a holistic view of the caries etiology. This review provides evidence on the interkingdom interaction that establishes a complex community that could help predict future oral and systemic diseases.
The Microbiome In Disease
In this review, we comprehensively explore the ability of the host diet to modulate gut bacteria, with the hope that this knowledge will guide our understanding of how dietary choices impact human health through alteration of the gastrointestinal ecosystem .
Impact of diet on the gut microbiome and human health
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Stool And Oral Cavity Mucus Sample Collection
A total of 1815 stool samples and 116 oral cavity mucus samples were collected. Cohorts 1 and 2 used identical protocols to collect the stool samples. Participants of cohort 1 and 2 were asked to collect one stool sample at home. Stool samples were frozen within 15min after stool production in the participants home freezer and remained frozen until DNA isolation. A research nurse visited all participants to collect the stool samples shortly after production and they were transported and stored at 80°C. Participants of cohort 3 were asked to bring a stool sample to the research facility within 24h after stool production. These samples were immediately frozen upon arrival at 80°C.
Oral cavity mucus samples were collected from 116 additional healthy volunteers using buccal swabs.
The Gut Lining Or Barrier
Your gut is open to the outside world and its germs. Food and microbes enter the mouth and must A one-cell thick gut barrier is all that separates the rest of your body from the outside world.
This very gut barrier defends you from harmful microbes. However, it depends on friendly or probiotic bacteria to help maintain its barrier cells.
When gut microbiota ferment fiber, they release short-chain fatty acids. These molecules are used for fuel by cells of your gut lining. If you dont eat enough fiber, your gut bacteria dont feed your gut lining.
When your gut lining isnt maintained by your gut bacteria, its barrier function is weakened or lost. This results in a condition known as leaky gut.
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