Wednesday, May 29, 2024

Do Probiotics Help Autoimmune Diseases

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Mechanism Of Action Of Probiotics

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Probiotics have been found to affect every compartment of the gut, including the luminal microbiome, the mucus barrier, the microbe- and cell-free kill zone of the epithelium, the lymphocyte- and plasma cell-rich lamina propria, the vascular and neural elements of the lamina propria, the underlying smooth muscles which control motility, and the mesenteric lymph nodes that communicate with the systemic immune system. Probiotic-modulated local and systemic metabolites have been identified which may modify autoimmune diseases and the mechanisms are summarized in .

Under certain circumstances, treatment with probiotic lactobacilli could yield metabolites in the SCFA pathway that may be harmful. In the setting of short bowel syndrome, infants have been reported to develop D-lactic acidosis , because of the low abundance of the anaerobic microbiota capable of lactate utilization and a dominance of lactobacilli in the feces .

Probiotics And Intestinal Immunomodulation

Dysbiosis may be associated with several human diseases, including IBD, infections and colorectal cancer . Several probiotics modulate the intestinal immune system by production of secreted factors and metabolites that affect the growth and function of intestinal epithelial and immune cells .

Mechanisms of immunomodulation by beneficial microbes. Probiotics can modulate the immune system in the intestine through the luminal conversion process. The bacteria produce secreted soluble factors and metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids and vitamins using substrates from the diet. These bioactive compounds affect the function of intestinal epithelium and mucosal immune cells, resulting in production of cytokine and related factors such as a proliferation-inducing ligand and B-cell activating factor .

The Gram-positive bacterium L. reuteri is a heterofermentative symbiont indigenous to the gastrointestinal tract of many mammals including humans, pigs, mice and rats . L. reuteri regulates the intestinal immune system by several different mechanisms . Several in vitro studies have elucidated the molecular mechanisms behind its ability to modulate the immune system. Interestingly, these activities seem to be strain-dependent , and affect both innate and adaptive immunity.

Effects Of Probiotics In High

In both animal trials and human trials, probiotics have been investigated to determine potential beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of a wide variety of systemic conditions. These conditions include inflammatory and autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, multiple sclerosis, and hepatic encephalopathy. Advantages of probiotics include the regulation of immune system function, which is often dependent on the strain of probiotic bacteria. Some strains have demonstrated stimulation of the immune response, thereby being beneficial to patients suffering from immunodeficiency . Other strains have been shown to inhibit the immune response, thereby being beneficial for patients suffering from conditions with immune activation such as rheumatoid arthritis .

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Food Versus Pills: The Probiotics Debate

Some healthcare practitioners recommend that patients increase their consumption of probiotics, the beneficial bacteria found in yogurt and other foods as well as in supplements. A systematic review and meta-analysis of previous studies published in the February 2017 issue of Engineering found that probiotic supplementation showed a limited improvement in people with RA, but noted that more quality studies need to be done. Another study, published in the June 2020 issue of Nutrients, also found a reduction of disease activity and gut permeability among people with PsA who took probiotics. These effects were not sustained after they stopped taking the supplements.

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Treatment Of Lactose Intolerance

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Lactose intolerance is due to the inability to digest lactose in dairy products. It is believed to affect 60% of the world’s population . However, lactose malabsorption varies considerably in the different countries from 5 to 15% in Northern Europe and America to 50100% in South America, Asia and Africa. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus and S. thermophilus in yogurts improve the intolerance to lactose as they possess the enzyme beta- galactosidase . Recently, randomized double-blind studies showed the efficiency of probiotic bacteria in fermented and unfermented milk preparations given to alleviate the clinical symptoms of lactose malabsorption .

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The Benefits Of Probiotics

Bacteria tend to get a bad rap. When we think of bacteria, we likely think of an infection. However, not all bacteria are bad.

Many bacteria have evolved along with humans in a mutually beneficial relationship, such as the bacteria living in your digestive system. Scientists are beginning to understand how complex these partnerships are between healthy humans and the bacteria inside their guts.

In a healthy gut, theres a delicate balance of different bacteria. Healthy gut bacteria, called intestinal microflora, play an important role in immunity and digestion. Probiotics contain many of the same or similar microorganisms that naturally live in human bodies, which means that, in theory, they can also help with immunity and digestion.

While research around the benefits of probiotics is still relatively new, probiotics are typically considered helpful, because:

  • they may help maintain or improve the beneficial microorganisms in your gut
  • they may positively influence your immune system

Respiratory Infections And Covid

L. rhamnosus GG reduces the risk of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in infants .

Viral respiratory infections affect morbidity and mortality of a population. Pattern recognition receptors are the main sensor players of the innate immune response. Expression of many Pattern Recognition Receptors is exacerbated in the lung cells during inflammation. In this vein, macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils are responding by increasing levels of PAMPs and DAMPs .

It is known that intruder’s pathogens have a specific unique profile of PAMPs resulting in a specific immune response . PAMPs are necessary molecules for the pathogens survival hence they are not produced by the host. In viruses, the major PAMPs are nucleic acids or glycoproteins. PAMPs should be recognized by PRRs conducting to the expression of cytokines, chemokines, and other co-stimulatory molecules in order to eliminate the pathogenic virus and activating then antigen presenting cells and specific adaptive immunity . The most studied PRRs for pathogens recognition are TLRs which are membrane glycoproteins .

Without any doubt, there is a clear diversity in the patterns for pathogen recognition and host protection upon viral infections.

On the other side, PRRs recognize DAMPs as danger signals released by damaged or necrotic host cells which reinforce the pro-inflammatory response . As a result, stimulation of TLRs is crucial for the protection from the development of diseases.

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Boost Up Your Glutathione

Glutathione is considered the master anti-oxidant within the body and is produced by every cell in the body where it functions to protect our DNA. Glutathione is our cells security guard that protects the cellular components from outside free radical attack. Longevity scientists now believe that the level of glutathione in our cells has a direct relationship with how long we will live .

Glutathione plays a very important role in establishing immune tolerance . Studies have demonstrated that glutathione enhances the function of T cells and modulates immune activity . In this way, optimizing glutathione levels are extremely important for reducing collateral damage associated with inflammation and autoimmune reactions .

This article goes into more detail on glutathione and its role in reducing inflammation. Hopefully, this article has given you hope and several major action steps to reduce inflammation and heal autoimmune disease.

Liver Diseases And Hepatic Encephalopathy

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There is mutual communication between the central nervous system and the liver, the so-called microbiota-gut-liver axis. Thereby, there is a reciprocal interaction between hepatic receptors and bacterial lipopolysaccharides. When intestinal imbalance occurs prompting the alteration of the intestinal permeability, immune and inflammatory responses are produced and can result in hepatic disorders. Moreover, nutrients absorbed by the gut reach the liver.

Cirrhosis seems to be associated with changes in the presence of Bifidobacterium species in the intestinal microbiota .

Moreover, modifications of the intestinal microbiota have been observed among patients with chronic hepatitis B , primary sclerosing cholangitis and proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma . There was diversity observed in intestinal microbiota amongst subjects with hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis and subjects with chronic hepatitis B .

Hepatic encephalopathy is closely related to the intestinal microbiota . The metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota on amino-acids results in the production of toxic substances that are inactivated in the liver. However, when liver failure occurs these substances are not inactivated, they enter the circulation, cross the hematoencephalic barrier and cause hepatic encephalopathy resulting in coma.

In this same spirit, probiotics have also been proposed as an adjunctive treatment for hepatic encephalopathy.

Table 5. Use of probiotics in Liver diseases.

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Intestinal Dysbiosis And Probiotic Applications In Autoimmune Diseases

Microbiome Study Group, School of Health Sciences Dr Paulo Prata, Barretos, São Paulo, Brazil

Correspondence: Gislane Lelis Vilela de Oliveira, Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde Dr Paulo Prata , Avenida Loja Maçônica Renovadora 68, no. 100, 14075-002, Barretos, São Paulo, Brazil. Email:

Senior author: Gislane Lelis Vilela de Oliveira

Microbiome Study Group, School of Health Sciences Dr Paulo Prata, Barretos, São Paulo, Brazil

Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, São Paulo, Brazil

Microbiome Study Group, School of Health Sciences Dr Paulo Prata, Barretos, São Paulo, Brazil

Correspondence: Gislane Lelis Vilela de Oliveira, Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde Dr Paulo Prata , Avenida Loja Maçônica Renovadora 68, no. 100, 14075-002, Barretos, São Paulo, Brazil. Email:

Senior author: Gislane Lelis Vilela de Oliveira

Microbiome Study Group, School of Health Sciences Dr Paulo Prata, Barretos, São Paulo, Brazil

Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, São Paulo, Brazil

Diet And Its Effects On The Gut Microbiota

Luminal conversion by intestinal microbes may play an important role in hostmicrobiota interactions. Orally consumed nutrients may be converted by intestinal microbes into bioactive compounds that could affect the health of the host and the intestinal microbiota. GABA, gamma-aminobutyric acid SCFAs, short-chain fatty acids.

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Potential Roles And Mechanistic Effects Of Probiotics

Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits to the host. The therapeutic and prophylactic effects of probiotic administration are thought to be mediated through a wide assortment of mechanisms, which have been well described elsewhere,, , and are briefly summarized here.

The host gut microbiota can be impacted by probiotic supplementation through competition , antagonism, and crossfeeding., The formation of biofilms by probiotic bacteria promotes colonization and longer permanence in the mucosa of the host and avoids the attachment of pathogenic bacteria. Many probiotic strains are antagonistic toward other microorganisms due to the production of organic acids , which lower luminal pH, and also bacteriocins, which inhibit pathogens in the human gut and urinary tract. Interestingly, supplementation with Lactobacillus probiotics during Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy has been found to improve eradication efficacy, presumably due to their antagonistic activity against H. pylori. Crossfeeding between probiotic bacteria and host microbiota can promote the production of SCFAs such as butyrate in the gut, with benefits as described above.

The Secret To Treating Autoimmune Disease May Lie In The Gut

144 Benefits of Probiotics

Senior Writer, The Huffington Post

An estimated 50 million Americans thats 20 percent of the general population suffer from autoimmune diseases like lupus, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, and many experts say that number is rising at an alarming rate.

Autoimmunity occurs when the immune system begins attacking the bodys healthy tissue as if it were an outside invader, leading to chronic inflammation. We still dont know much about what causes the immune system to go haywire, or how to effectively treat it.

But new research suggests that the gut microbiome the community of trillions of good and bad bacteria living in the bodys intestinal tract could play a larger role than scientists have realized. Alterations in gut bacteria are one cause of the runaway inflammation characteristic of autoimmune conditions, according to a study slated for publication in the January issue of the Journal of Experimental Medicine.

Scientists already knew that the gut microbiome and the immune system are closely intertwined and constantly engaged in dynamic interaction. But new studies like this one continue to reveal more intricate connections between these two key systems of the body, including the ways that dysfunctions in both systems can contribute to autoimmunity.

But mice that were given healthy Lactobacillus bacteria had their microbial community go back to normal and saw reduced inflammation.

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Probiotics & Parkinsons Disease

Probiotics refer to foods or nutritional supplements that contain micro-organisms meant to support health. Probiotics therefore make up a very large category of products, including certain yogurts as well as supplements in powder and pill form. You can review the use of probiotics for general health on the NIH website here. Probiotics may work by supporting a healthy balance of micro-organisms in the microbiome, defined as the trillions of microbes that live in the human gut, and possibly by modulating the bodys immune responses.

Recently, there has been concern in medical literature that the explosion of use of probiotics in the general population has outpaced our understanding of the science behind its use. Probiotics have been linked to infection, particularly in people who have compromised immune systems . Despite insufficient scientific data to support its widespread use however, ingestion of probiotics does not typically cause problems in those with normal immune systems.

In two past blogs, I wrote about the complex relationship between the gut and PD and discussed the possibility that the microbiome in patients with PD might be different than those without PD. This has led to a research interest of whether manipulating gut bacteria in PD can be therapeutic.

Probiotic Components Which Regulate Immune Responses In The Host

To define effectors of probiotic action, active components of probiotics have recently been studied. Two-dimensional gel coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 secreted proteins revealed 74 distinct proteins. Thirty-one proteins are predicted to carry out their physiological role either outside the cell or on its surface, including solute-binding proteins for oligosaccharides, amino acids and manganese, and cell wall-metabolizing proteins. Eighteen proteins mediate interaction with human host epithelial cells or extracellular matrix proteins. The potential functions include binding of plasminogen, formation of fimbriae, adhesion to collagen, attachment to mucin and intestinal cells as well as induction of immunomodulative responses. These findings suggest a role of bacterial proteins in colonization of the gastrointestinal tract, adhesion to host tissues, or immunomodulation of the host immune system .

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Things You Can Do To Help Reverse Your Autoimmune Disease That Your Doctor Isn’t Telling You

Functional Medicine Doctor & NYT Best Selling Author

March is Autoimmune Disease Awareness Month. If you’re one of the 50 million Americans who suffers from an autoimmune disease, I want to tell you, as a functional medicine physician who specializes in treating autoimmune patients and as someone who has battled an autoimmune disease myself, that the most important thing to know about autoimmune diseases is that they can be reversed.

Contrary to what most conventional doctors say, an autoimmune diagnosis does not mean resigning yourself to debilitating symptoms that get worse and worse over time, or settling for a lifetime of harsh medications.

Your autoimmune disease didn’t happen overnight. Sure, you may have a genetic predisposition towards autoimmunity. However, we now know about epigenetics and that our genes are not static and they can be both turned on and turned off by environmental and lifestyle factors. As a functional medicine physician, I work with my patients to find the root cause of their autoimmunity by uncovering these environmental and lifestyle factors that turned on these genes. After treating thousands of patients with autoimmunity and other chronic health conditions, I have found that by addressing five common environmental and lifestyle factors we can help restore the balance of your immune system and often reverse your autoimmune disease.

  • Restore the Good — Replenish enzymes and acids necessary for proper digestion
  • Study Selection And Data Extraction

    Autoimmune Disorders Uncovered

    Two independent reviewers identified studies for inclusion and analyzed the selected articles. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion. The process of the study selection is illustrated in . Titles and abstracts were first reviewed to exclude manuscripts that were published in non-English-language journals, systematic and literature reviews, commentaries, meeting abstracts, letters, case reports, animal studies, and clearly irrelevant studies. The remaining full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, based on the research questions. Data on subject characteristics , study characteristics , and clinical outcomes were recorded. The included clinical trials were scored using the Jadad scale .

    Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses study flow diagram. Abbreviations: non-gastrointestinal , irritable bowel syndrome , proton pump inhibitor , gastroesophageal reflux disease .

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    The Future Of Probiotics

    Henri Poincare said in The Foundations of Science that, It is far better to foresee even without certainty than not to foresee at all.. Based on the collective evidence, the authors suggest the following events are likely to take place in the near future.

    Probiotics are likely to be used in autoimmune diseases as a component of various treatment regimens. One size will not fit all. The choice of optimal probiotic or multispecies strains will evolve for each disease entity studied.

    The present third-party insurance reimbursement problem will change. Currently, insurance plans in the U.S. cover antibiotics, but not probiotics but a body of evidence is evolving to support that clinical outcomes will be improved with probiotics. Once safety issues in vulnerable populations are adequately addressed by properly controlled and regulated trials, we expect widespread use in children and adults with autoimmune disorders and coverage by insurance plans.

    Finally, the scientific community may begin to refer to probiotics as evidence-based, rather than alternative medicine.

    How Probiotics Help Your Immune System

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    Do you know probiotics not only help resolve digestive issues, but also protect and enhance your immune system? You may say, how is this possible? Well, dont sweat it because, in this article, we shall discuss the relationship between probiotics and your immune system.

    After learning about the benefits of probiotics for immune health, you would understand why many people are turning to this tiny resource to keep their familys health in tip-top condition.

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