What Are Prebiotics And Probiotics
Dietary amounts of protein, saturated and unsaturated fats, carbohydrates, and dietary fibre influence the abundance of different types of bacteria in the gut. The microbiota can also be modified by adding live micro-organisms to food or by periods of fasting.
Probiotics are live bacteria and yeasts that, when administrated in a viable form and in adequate amounts, are beneficial to human health. They are usually added to yoghurts or taken as food supplements.
Prebiotics are defined as a substrate that is selectively used by host micro-organisms conferring a health benefit. Although all compounds considered prebiotics are microbiota accessible carbohydrates or fermentable dietary fibre, the reverse is not true. The prebiotic concept is an area of current debate70
Synbiotics contain a mixture of prebiotics and probiotics
Gut Bacteria And Obesity
An unhealthy balance in your gut microbiome may cause crossed signals from your brain when it comes to feeling hungry or full. Researchers think there may be a link to the pituitary gland, which makes hormones that help set your appetite. That gland can affect the balance of bacteria in your gut, too. Some studies on treating obesity are exploring this link.
How Does Plexus Slim Microbiome Work
As fir how it does its job, it is claimed this slimming product create a sort of healthy gut which promotes faster weight loss. It is said, daily intake of this formula will not only help increase metabolism in the body but also increase the presences of microbes in the gut which help with digestion.
It is also claimed; as one way to ensure you dont add weight after losing it, it puts your appetite in check. This will leave you feeling full all day long.
Plexus Slim Microbiome Pros
- Tastes and smell really good
- Can be mailed right to where you
Plexus Slim Microbiome Cons
- No scientific evidence to back up its top claims
- Associated with serious side effects
- Should you discontinue it halfway; all its effects will diminish?
- Nor clear explanation given on how it does its job
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Approach For Sustainable Sugarcane Productivity
Microbiomes play a significant role in several fields related to energy research, renewable sources of biofuels, bioproducts, or electricity, promoting the growth, productivity, and adaptability of bioenergy feedstock crops. A better perceptive of the interactions and physiological compositions of these microbial communities will reveal functional traits of the beneficial microbiome, and potentially consortia properties toward energy production and utilization . Exploration of microbes as biofertilizers is the best option for replacing the use of chemical fertilizers in the agricultural region due to their broad potential in increasing crop productivity and food security. There are so many reports and experiments confirm that plant growth-promoting microbes have shown biofertilizer-like activity in different crops . The development of advanced sustainable crop production would be possible due to the exploration of the beneficial plant-associated microbiome. We need first to select and characterize the potential microbes associated with sugarcane plants before their application at field level. . However, there is a need for much more knowledge to achieve the efficiency of the biofertilizers.
Figure 7.1. Schematic diagram of approach and applications of microbial inoculants in sustainable sugarcane production.
H. Neuman, O. Koren, in, 2016
Discovering Microbes That Predict Covid
The COVID-19 pandemic has inspired me to shift my research and explore the role of the gut microbiome in the overly aggressive immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection.
My colleagues and I have hypothesized that critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients with conditions like obesity, Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease exhibit an altered gut microbiome that aggravates acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome, a life-threatening lung injury, in SARS-CoV-2 patients is thought to develop from a fatal overreaction of the immune response called a cytokine stormthat causes an uncontrolled floodof immune cells into the lungs. In these patients, their own uncontrolled inflammatory immune response, rather than the virus itself, causes the severe lung injury and multiorgan failures that lead to death.
Several studies described in one recent review have identified an altered gut microbiome in patients with COVID-19. And some companies including Seres Therapeutics, 4d Pharma PLC, Evelo Biosciences, VEDANTA bioscience, and Finch Therapeutics have recently attracted investor attention for their work on therapies for diseases including cancer, depression and inflammatory bowel diseases.
Identification of specific bacteria within the microbiome that could predict COVID-19 severity is lacking.
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What Is Niehs Doing
NIEHS studies the microbiome to gain a better understanding of its complex relationships with the environment, and how these interactions may contribute to human health and disease. This knowledge could help us revolutionize the way new chemicals are tested for toxicity, and design prevention and treatment strategies for diseases that have environmental causes.
NIEHS-supported research related to the microbiome includes the environmental factors described below.
Chronic stress NIEHS researchers found chronic stress disturbs the gut microbiome in mice, triggering an immune response and promoting the development of colitis, a chronic digestive disease characterized by inflammation of the inner lining of the colon.4
Artificial sweeteners A NIEHSfunded study found sucralose, a widelyused artificial sweetener, changes the gut microbiome in mice and may increase the risk of developing chronic inflammation.5 In a separate study, they found that acesulfamepotassium, another artificial sweetener, induced weight gain in male, but not female, mice.6
Diet NIEHS researchers showed a highfat diet shaped the gut microbiome of mice in a way that predisposed them to gain weight and develop obesity.7
Caesarean delivery NIEHSfunded research indicates the way a newborn enters the world, by C-section or natural birth, and what is eaten, formula or breast milk, during the first six weeks of life may affect the type of microbes in the gut microbiome.8
Effects Of Antibiotic Use
Altering the numbers of gut bacteria, for example by taking broad-spectrum antibiotics, may affect the host’s health and ability to digest food. Antibiotics can cause antibiotic-associated diarrhea by irritating the bowel directly, changing the levels of microbiota, or allowing pathogenic bacteria to grow. Another harmful effect of antibiotics is the increase in numbers of antibiotic-resistant bacteria found after their use, which, when they invade the host, cause illnesses that are difficult to treat with antibiotics.
Changing the numbers and species of gut microbiota can reduce the body’s ability to ferment carbohydrates and metabolize bile acids and may cause diarrhea. Carbohydrates that are not broken down may absorb too much water and cause runny stools, or lack of SCFAs produced by gut microbiota could cause diarrhea.
A reduction in levels of native bacterial species also disrupts their ability to inhibit the growth of harmful species such as C. difficile and Salmonella kedougou, and these species can get out of hand, though their overgrowth may be incidental and not be the true cause of diarrhea. Emerging treatment protocols for C. difficile infections involve fecal microbiota transplantation of donor feces . Initial reports of treatment describe success rates of 90%, with few side effects. Efficacy is speculated to result from restoring bacterial balances of bacteroides and firmicutes classes of bacteria.
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How Do Your Gut Microbiome Results Affect Your Treatment
Running these tests can give us a bounty of info and we can be more specific with treatment, says Dr. McConnell. For example, if you are low in beneficial bacteria, we need to load you up with probiotics and fiber. You may also have too much bad bacteria, which according to Dr. McConnell, would mean you could benefit from pharmaceutical-grade antimicrobial supplements that kill bacteria in the colon. And finally, if your gut shows that theres a lot of inflammation, your doctor may suggest an anti-inflammatory diet with additional anti-inflammatory supplements.
The results of microbiome testing can be extremely helpful, but its important to keep in mind that the science surrounding the microbiome is very new. Its always morphing and changing and a lot of the studies are still very small, says Dr. McConnell. Basically, these tests dont tell us everything, so we shouldnt rely on them alone to inform treatment. For example, there are specific bacteria that have been linked to specific health conditions, but the science isnt strong enough yet to make any conclusions. Getting too bogged down in the minutia isnt helpful. Its a much more big picture, says Dr. McConnell.
Its also best to do gut microbiome testing under the guidance of a doctor who can actually help you interpret your results. Without that, you run the risk of self-diagnosing and inappropriately treating.
What Else Can I Do To Support My Microbiome
You may not realize it, but there are many things you can do every day to support a healthy, well-balanced microbiome. Here are a few examples.
Exercise.;Studies like this one provide evidence that regular physical activity has a positive impact on our beneficial gut bacteria and may promote the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. Most experts recommend 30 minutes of moderate exercise five times a week.
Manage stress.;A recent Canadian study involving squirrels found a link between stress and an unhealthy microbiome, which scientists believe is applicable to human health. In testing the animals, they determined that the squirrels with higher stress levels had less bacterial diversity and an increase in the number of potentially harmful bacteria in the gut. However, those with lower stress levels had more bacterial diversity and a greater number of good bacteria. To support a healthy microbiome, try these 4 Simple Tips to Help Manage Stress.
Get enough sleep.;Did you know too little sleep can impact your gut microbial balance? Specifically, research has linked sleep loss to insulin sensitivity and changes in healthy blood sugartwo symptoms often seen in people with metabolic disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Try to aim for at least seven to nine hours of sleep every night.
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Prebiotic Foods And Dietary Fibre
Most national authorities define dietary fibre as edible carbohydrate polymers with three or more monomeric units that are resistant to the endogenous digestive enzymes and thus are neither hydrolysed nor absorbed in the small intestine.69 A subset of dietary fibre sources is fermentable, which means that they serve as growth substrates for microbes in the distal bowel.70 Some non-digestible carbohydrates have been referred to as prebiotics, which are defined as food components or ingredients that are not digestible by the human body but specifically or selectively nourish beneficial colonic micro-organisms .71 The prebiotic concept has been criticised for being poorly defined and unnecessarily narrow,72 and some scientists prefer the term microbiota accessible carbohydrates,11 which are essentially equivalent to fermentable dietary fibre in that they become available as growth substrates for gut microbes that possess the necessary enzymatic capacity to use them.70
What Is The Microbiome And How Does It Affect Our Health
Understand the amazing uniqueness of your microbiome and how it can help, or hurt, your health, weight, moods and more.
LEAH: Good morning everyone and welcome to Dishing Up Nutrition brought to you by Nutritional Weight and Wellness. Today we’re going to explain a rather complex and maybe it’s an unfamiliar term for many of you, and that term is called the microbiome. And if you’re a nutrition follower you more than likely have seen this term around whether it’s blog articles you’ve read or podcasts you’ve listened to, but we want to take some time this morning to really explain and explore and hopefully answer some questions around this concept of what exactly the microbiome is and how does it affect our health? If you would like more information about the microbiome after this show, you can go to our website, which is weightandwellness.com and read a blog article that I just wrote and we posted; I believe it was just last week on our website. So the blog is titled: What is the Microbiome? What Does it Do and How Does it Keep Us Healthy?
SHELBY: And Leah, I know I’ve talked to a few clients of mine who have already read that and think it’s just a really great resource. So kudos on putting that together and making it easier for our followers and our listeners to kind of dive into this topic.
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Who Should Take A Microbiome Test
In our opinion, the short answer is: everyone who can afford to do so. Advancements in microbiome testing and the scientific understanding of our gut microbiome have reached the point at which everyone can potentially benefit from taking a test and then discussing the results and ensuing actions with trusted healthcare professionals.
Microbiome tests attempt to detect the presence of different species of microorganisms in a fecal sample. From the best test results, you can then gain a wealth of information about:
- The richness of the gut microbiome and diversity of its microorganisms
- How your gut microbiome compares to that of others
- What this might say about your overall health and aging process
- What those microorganisms are actually doing for you
- How you can improve your health through specific dietary modifications
Imbalances in your gut microbiome could make you more susceptible to opportunistic or harmful bacteria and viruses, leading to a multitude of possible symptoms such as:
- Subpar immune response
- Stress management issues
- Mood fluctuations
It is very important to keep in mind that these tests shouldnt replace the advice of a physician or other healthcare professional. If you have symptoms that concern you, you should talk to your doctor, who will be able to determine if any medical interventions are required or further investigations needed.
Our Findings Highlight How Many Resistant Genes Are In The Microbiome And Could Potentially Be Mobilised To Be Opportunistic Pathogens
However, many of the genes thought to be fixed in certain bacterial environments can start spreading by overuse of antibiotics, which can put pressure on the resistant genes locked up inside a single bacterial cell, causing them to mobilise.
“Our findings highlight how many resistant genes are in the microbiome and could potentially be mobilised to be opportunistic pathogens. They should be seen as a warning that there is a large reservoir of these genes we dont want to start mobilising,” van Schaik says.
The brain and gut have a strong, two-way communication system referred to as the gutbrain axis. Each are essential to the other studies have found that brain development is abnormal in the absence of the gut microbiome. However, a recent review stated that research hasnt yet figured out which exact gut bacterium are crucial for;brain development.
Further investigation is uncovering how interlinked the gut is to the brain, however, including our mood and mental health, says Katerina Johnson, a researcher of the microbiome-gut-brain axis at the University of Oxford.
There is a recent trend toward taking probiotic supplements because we are only now realising the extent to which the gut microbiome affects us
“Research shows that if we take gut bacteria from depressed humans and colonise the guts of mice with it, the mice show changes in their behaviour and physiology that are characteristic of depression,” she says.
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What Is The Microbiome And Why Is It Important
Microbiomes are everywhere in, on and all around us. They are an integral part of our food system and are present at almost every step of the food production. Despite the negative connotations, such as food safety issues and diseases which people often associate with bacteria and other microorganisms, microbiomes actually provide many benefits and are essential for nutritious, plentiful and delicious food.
How Do Resident Bacteria Keep You Healthy
Our immune defense is part of a complex biological response against harmful pathogens, such as viruses or bacteria. However, because our bodies are inhabited by trillions of mostly beneficial bacteria, virus and fungi, activation of our immune response is tightly regulated to distinguish between harmful and helpful microbes.
Our bacteria are spectacular companions diligently helping prime our immune system defenses to combat infections. A seminal study found that mice treated with antibiotics that eliminate bacteria in the gut exhibited an impaired immune response. These animals had low counts of virus-fighting white blood cells, weak antibody responses and poor production of a protein that is vital for combating viral infection and modulating the immune response.
In another study, mice were fed Lactobacillus bacteria, commonly used as probiotic in fermented food. These microbes reduced the severity of influenza infection. The Lactobacillus-treated mice did not lose weight and had only mild lung damage compared with untreated mice. Similarly, others have found that treatment of mice with Lactobacillus protects against different subtypes ofinfluenzavirus and human respiratory syncytial virus the major cause of viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children.
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Relationship Of Environment In Shaping The Microbiome
As mentioned above human intestinal microbiome composition is shaped by multiple factors like genetics, diet, environment and lifestyle. Several studies point towards stronger contribution by the environmental factors in shaping the gut microbial composition compared to the genetic factor . It has also been speculated that gut microbial diversity affects the prediction accuracy for certain human traits including glucose and obesity problems, as compared to different animal models that use only host genetic and environmental factors .
A New Area Of Medicine
Scientists are looking for ways to improve the microbiome to help people avoid certain diseases or respond to treatments better. But some medicines can harm it. One round of antibiotics can change your microbiome for up to a year. And a study of more than 1,000 drugs showed that 1 in 4 affected bacteria growth. These included blood pressure, cancer, and diabetes medications.
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