What Other Symptoms Might I Have With Diarrhea
Other possible symptoms of diarrhea include:
- Cramps or pain in the abdomen
- An urgent need to use the bathroom
- Loss of bowel control
If a virus or bacteria is the cause of your diarrhea, you may also have a fever, chills, and bloody stools.
Diarrhea can cause dehydration, which means that your body does not have enough fluid to work properly. Dehydration can be serious, especially for children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems.
Impact Of Inconsistent Testing And Treatment
The lack of a specific diagnosis can hinder appropriate management and treatment of many infections. Although the patient’s history and clinical findings may provide important clues to likely etiologies, for some pathogens an organism-specific diagnosis is required. A decrease in the proportion of persons with diarrhea who submit stools for testing will likely result in a higher proportion of patients treated empirically and, in some cases, inappropriately. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy can shorten illness and reduce morbidity in some bacterial and parasitic infections and can be life-saving in invasive infections.
The emergence of microbe strains that are resistant to many commonly used antimicrobial agents means that treatment failures may become more common and that determinations of antimicrobial susceptibility may be made more often. Knowledge of the local patterns of susceptibility can guide the initial choice of antibiotic but depends on isolation of pathogens from recent clinical specimens. When empirical therapy is undertaken with broad-spectrum antibiotics or when treatment fails because of resistance to the antimicrobial used, it may facilitate the emergence of drug resistance among some bacterial enteric pathogens that spread easily from person to person, such as Shigella species . Empirical therapy also results in courses of unnecessary antibiotics. In addition, outcomes of some bacterial diarrheal illnesses may be worsened by the use of antibiotics.
What Causes Gastroenteritis
Gastro may be caused by:
- bacteria, such as salmonella
- parasites, such as giardia
- chemicals, such as toxins in poisonous mushrooms
Viral gastroenteritis is highly infectious and spreads through contact with contaminated hands, objects or food. It can also be spread through coughing and sneezing.
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How Common Is Rotavirus
Before the vaccines, rotavirus was the number one cause of severe diarrhea in babies and young children in the United States. Nearly all children got rotavirus before age five. Rotavirus led to 55,000 to 70,000 hospitalizations each year.
The vaccines have significantly improved childrens health and hospitalization rates. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has studied the impact. It estimates that every year, the vaccines prevent 40,000 to 50,000 hospitalizations among babies and young children.
How Long Rotavirus Lasts
During the course of the infection, your child might first get a fever and vomit. Watery diarrhea can then occur between 3 and 8 days after. The infection itself can last for 10 days in stool after symptoms go away.
You may need to call a doctor if symptoms dont improve within a few days or if they get worse. Rotavirus is diagnosed via a stool PCR test in a medical lab.
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How Is Diarrhea Treated
Most infections that cause diarrhea, especially viral infections, will go away without treatment. Taking it easy at home and drinking plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration are the best ways to ride out the illness. If you do become dehydrated, you might need to go to the hospital for intravenous fluids to replace those lost to diarrhea, vomiting, and fever.
If you go to your doctor, you may give a stool sample so he or she can find out what type of infection you have. Whether you need medicine will depend on which germ is causing the illness. A parasitic infection will be treated with anti-parasitic medicine. Sometimes, diarrhea caused by bacteria is treated with antibiotics to prevent the infection from spreading throughout the body.
How Is Diarrhea Diagnosed
To see if you have diarrhea, your healthcare provider will give you a physical exam and ask about your past health. You may also have lab tests to check your blood and urine.
Other tests may include:
- Stool studies including culture and other tests. This test checks for any abnormal bacteria in your digestive tract that may cause diarrhea and other problems. To do this, a small stool sample is taken and sent to a lab.
- Sigmoidoscopy. This test lets your healthcare provider check the inside of part of your large intestine. It helps to tell what is causing diarrhea. A short, flexible, lighted tube is put into your intestine through the rectum. This tube blows air into your intestine to make it swell. This makes it easier to see inside. A biopsy can be taken if needed.
- Colonoscopy. This test looks at the full length of your large intestine. It can help check for any abnormal growths, tissue that is red or swollen, sores , or bleeding. A long, flexible, lighted tube is put into your rectum up into the colon. This tube lets your healthcare provider see the lining of your colon and take out a tissue sample to test it. He or she can also treat some problems that may be found.
- Imaging tests. These tests can see if there are any problems with the way your organs are formed .
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When Do I Need To See A Health Care Provider For Diarrhea
Although it is usually not harmful, diarrhea can become dangerous or signal a more serious problem. Contact your health care provider if you have:
- Signs of dehydration
- Diarrhea for more than 2 days, if you are an adult. For children, contact the provider if it lasts more than 24 hours.
- Severe pain in your abdomen or rectum
- A fever of 102 degrees or higher
- Stools containing blood or pus
- Stools that are black and tarry
If children have diarrhea, parents or caregivers should not hesitate to call a health care provider. Diarrhea can be especially dangerous in newborns and infants.
What Can I Do To Feel Better
You’ll feel better if you stay well hydrated, so drink lots of water. Electrolytes are also lost and need to be replaced because the body cannot function properly without them. Try sipping broth or soup, which contain sodium, and diluted fruit juice , which contains potassium.
When you feel ready to eat something more substantial, try soft fruits or vegetables, which also contain potassium. Avoid milk products and fatty, high-fiber, or very sweet foods until the diarrhea eases. And don’t drink sports drinks or soft drinks â they contain electrolytes, but their high sugar content can make diarrhea worse.
As uncomfortable as diarrhea may be, it is usually short-lived. Drink enough fluids and follow your doctor’s instructions, and you feel better in no time.
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Categories Of Infectious Diarrhea
Non-inflammatory, secretory diarrhea usually presents with the passage of voluminous watery stools associated with the presence of abdominal cramps and pain without important levels of fever. The classical cause of secretory diarrhea is Vibrio cholerae O1, the causative agent of cholera, but the syndrome can be caused by nearly any enteropathogen. The osmotic gap, stool versus serum has been used in to differentiate secretory from non-secretory diarrhea. The osmotic gap is determined as follows: Na+ and K+ concentrations found in the stool and multiplying this by 2 with this number subtracted from 290 . In secretory diarrhea the osmotic gap is < 125, usually < 50.
Gastroenteritis is a syndrome characterized by nausea and vomiting with or without watery diarrhea generally caused by ingested viral agents or preformed toxins of Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus. Clinical criteria have been proposed to differentiate outbreaks of gastroenteritis due to viruses from those due to other causes. Diarrhea due toStaphylococcus spp.,Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens toxins presents with shorter incubation period, typically < 10 hours, more vomiting, and shorter duration of illness.
A complication of receptive anal intercourse in a gay male is proctitis caused by one of four enteropathogens showing sexual transmission: Neisseria gonorrheae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Herpes simplexor Treponema pallidum.
Babies And Children With Gastro
If you have a baby under 6 months, they should be checked by a doctor. Its also a good idea to have babies older than 6 months and young children with gastro checked by a doctor in case they are dehydrated.
If you cannot find rehydration fluids, or your child refuses to drink it, giving diluted fruit juice is reasonable. You could try a cube of ice or an ice-block if your child wont drink.
Babies can continue milk feeds throughout the illness, with rehydration fluid between feeds.
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Is The Stomach Flu Contagious
Yes, extremely. It spreads via the fecal-oral route , which basically means viruses from infected feces or vomit find their way into our mouths. The CDC says people with norovirus illness can shed billions of norovirus particles, and you only need a few of them to get sick. Very diligent hand washing is your best defense, according to Dr. Rogg.
Wash carefully if you’re changing diapers or cleaning up after a sick child, and grown-ups in the household should clean up after themselves if they can, advises Ryan Madanick, MD, a gastroenterologist and assistant professor of medicine at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine in Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
How Long Does Diarrhea Last With Roseola
. In this regard, can roseola cause diarrhea?
About 24 hours after your child’s fever has gone away, the roseola rash develops. Although your child may go back and forth between feeling comfortable and acting upset, they usually eat and drink normally. Your child may have other symptoms such as a runny nose, diarrhea, vomiting, and swollen glands in the neck.
Secondly, does roseola cause cough? Roseola, also known as roseola infantum or sixth disease, is a viral infection. It usually affects children between 6 months and 2 years of age, with most having had it by kindergarten. Adults are not often affected. Symptoms include fever, runny nose, cough, and sore throat.
Also asked, how long does it take for roseola rash to go away?
The fever of roseola lasts 3-5 days followed by a rash lasting about one to two days that resolves without treatment.
How do you soothe roseola rash?
A lukewarm sponge bath or a cool washcloth applied to your child’s head can soothe the discomfort of a fever. However, avoid using ice, cold water, fans or cold baths. These may give the child unwanted chills.
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Protecting Yourself From Gastroenteritis
The viruses that cause gastroenteritis come from contact with an infected person’s stool. You may get it if a person with the virus didn’t wash their hands after using the bathroom and then touched the escalator at the mall — the same escalator you touched before eating lunch. Stomach flu viruses are tough, too. Some can live on surfaces such as counters for months.
It’s important to take steps to protect yourself and your family. Here’s some advice.
- Wash your hands. According to experts, this is still the best way to stop a stomach virus. One review of studies found that good hand-washing technique cut the rate of diarrhea by 40%. Make sure to use soap and water and do it thoroughly — wash your hands for as long as it takes to recite the alphabet. Always wash your hands after using the bathroom, before eating, and after changing a diaper.
- Use hand sanitizer. If you’re not near a sink to wash your hands, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Be aware that hand sanitizer may not be as effective as hand washing at preventing the stomach flu.
- Wipe down surfaces. If a family member has the stomach flu, wash off high-traffic areas — such as the bathroom, door knobs, phones, and TV remotes — with a diluted bleach solution. If it’s possible, keep healthy people out of the bathroom the sick person is using.
- Make sure your kids get their vaccines.Vaccines for rotavirus can protect children from some types of stomach flu. Kids usually get the vaccines before they are age 2.
How Long Are People Contagious
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says most people with COVID-19 are contagious for up to 10 days following symptom onset. Symptom onset is the day you first start to feel sick.
People who have had severe COVID-19 may be contagious for up to 20 days. This is also true for people who are immunocompromised. Immunocompromised people have immune systems that don’t function well.
Self-isolate as soon as you have tested positive for COVID-19 or start having symptoms. This means staying home. It also means isolating from other members of your household, or limiting contact and wearing a mask at home.
If possible, infected people should sleep in a separate bedroom. If you have COVID-19, use a separate bathroom and wipe down common surfaces.
Everyone in the house should try to limit their exposure. As much as possible, household members who are not sick should avoid interactions with people outside the home.
COVID-19 is very contagious. You can pass it to others even if you have mild or no symptoms. It is important to self-isolate as soon as you start to feel sick.
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When Should I Call My Doctor
Tell an adult if you have diarrhea, fever, vomiting, or severe belly pain. That person can help you decide whether to call your doctor.
If you feel listless and your mouth and skin feel dry, or if your bowel movements contain blood or mucus, you should contact or see a doctor right away. Also go to the doctor if you are vomiting so much that you can’t keep down fluids or if your symptoms last more than 3 days.
Children And Vaccination For Rotavirus
Rotavirus is a virus that causes severe gastroenteritis in babies and young children. All young children should receive the rotavirus vaccine at 6 weeks and 4 months of age. A third dose at 6 months may be needed depending on the brand of vaccine used.
This vaccine is effective in preventing the rotavirus infection in about 7 out of every 10 children vaccinated. It is also effective in preventing severe gastroenteritis in about 9 out of every 10 infants vaccinated. The vaccine provides protection for up to 5 years.
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Whats The Bottom Line
The more accurate term for the stomach flu is viral gastroenteritis, because its not related to the influenza viruses that cause the respiratory illnesses we see in fall and winter. There are several types of viruses that can cause viral gastroenteritis. The most common of these is norovirus.
If you have viral gastroenteritis, you may pass the virus on to others when you have symptoms and for a few days after they go away. However, the virus can still be present in your stool for weeks after recovery. For this reason, its important to wash your hands thoroughly after using the restroom and before handling food or anything else that will go into your mouth.
Most people recover without seeking medical attention. However, if you experience signs of serious dehydration, blood in your stool, persistent fever, or severe abdominal pain, get medical attention right away.
Why Rotavirus May Be Mild
Most children are exposed to the virus and develop rotavirus-induced stomach flu before the age of five. The illness results in long-lasting immunity in healthy children, and that is one of the reasons why adults typically do not always become sick when exposed to the virus.
Adults also do not usually experience severe effects of the infection. Adults weigh more than very young children, so the impact of the infectionloss of fluids, for exampleis not as substantial to a healthy adult’s overall health as it is for a very young child. And adults tend to eat food in moderation when they have gastroenteritis, which decreases the symptoms and helps maintain proper nutrition.
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A Flu Shot Won’t Help
Um, no. It has nothing to do with the flu, remember?
The flu is influenza, a virus that circulates the globe each year attacking the nose and throat as it spreads through communities in waves. Flu shots protect against that virusbut not ones that cause viral gastroenteritis, which is characterized by inflammation of the stomach and intestines, per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
If youre confused, youre not the only one. Some symptoms overlap, like body aches, nausea, and low-grade fever, says Gary Rogg, MD, an internist at Montefiore Medical Center in New York City.
But a flu shot definitely won’t protect against stomach bugs. There’s no such thing as a stomach flu shot, at least not for grown-ups.
So How Long Should You Stay Away
Much of the current advice on when people can return to work, school or child care after gastro is based on the most common viral gastroenteritis, norovirus, even though few patients will discover the cause of their bug.
For norovirus, the highest rate of viral shedding into stools occurs 24 to 48 hours after all symptoms have stopped. The viral shedding rate then starts to quickly decrease. So people can return to work 48 hours after symptoms have stopped.
Yes, viral shedding into stools can occur for longer than 48 hours. But because norovirus infection is so common and recovery is rapid, its not considered practical to demand patients stools be clear of the virus before returning to work.
While 24 hours may be appropriate for many people, a specific 48-hour exclusion rule is considered necessary for those in a higher-risk category for spreading gastro to others. These include food handlers, health care workers and children under the age of five at child care or play group.
If you have a positive stool culture for a notifiable organism, that may change the situation. Food handlers, childcare workers and health-care workers affected by verotoxin E.coli, for example, are not permitted to work until symptoms have stopped and two consecutive faecal specimens taken at least 24 hours apart have tested negative for verotoxin E. coli. This may lead to a lengthy exclusion period from work, possibly several days.
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